Childless Feminine’s Dating that have Children regarding Other people: Narratives out-of A couple Generations for the Lithuania

Childless Feminine’s Dating that have Children regarding Other people: Narratives out-of A couple Generations for the Lithuania

  • The initial style of this chapter was modified: Brand new section is inadvertently penned excluding an Acknowledgement which has been additional now. The new correction to that particular part is obtainable on


A good childless lady which stays in a culture that have pronatalist philosophy are going to be for the a susceptible position. Inside the 2006, singular.9% away from Lithuanians shown positive attitudes on the childlessness, and you may 84.6% valued it adversely (Stakuniene and you will Maslauskaite 2008), signalling the newest pronatalist inclination from Lithuanian area. Although not, some knowledge establish a move off old-fashioned so you’re able to even more individualistic familial attitudes (Kanopiene ainsi que al. 2015). Which chapter talks about the partnership anywhere between childless women regarding one or two years from inside the Lithuania as well as the children of these ladies’ family relations otherwise relatives. The study will be based upon forty partial-organized qualitative interview used in 2017–2018 having solitary and you will combined women involving the period of twenty eight and you will 71 that willingly and you may involuntarily childless. The women regarding reproductive decades have been provided their intentions to has or not features people down the road, and some was basically going right on through sterility solutions; female more than 50 reflected on the permanent childlessness. Every interviewed female was basically involved in taking good care of their siblings’ otherwise close relatives’ people throughout the a time inside their life, and in some cases, such feminine turned into substitute moms and dads. Not totally all female reported that they prevented exposure to people within their personal lifestyle.


  • Childless and you will childfree women
  • Relationships with students
  • Qualitative methodology
  • Lithuania


Pronatalism, facts and you will perceptions you to definitely prompt procreation, try a prevalent feature for the majority communities. Pronatalism try prevalent enough which would-be presented because ‘a couple of beliefs therefore inserted they have come to rise above the crowd just like the true’, and has now a specific affect female: ‘an effective cardinal premise when you look at the pronatalist envision ‘s the conjecture that a beneficial woman’s role need certainly to cover maternity’ (Carrol 2012 from inside the Venkatesan and you may Murali 2019, 2). As the women’s social identities try strongly linked to motherhood, childless women can be often regarded as ‘others’ when you look at the pronatalist societies (Venkatesan and you may Murali 2019). Melissa Graham et al. (2013) refer to a great amount of scientific tests during the Western communities you to make sure female versus college students are stigmatized, negatively stereotyped and even socially omitted.

Pronatalist thinking one to function the baby-centred discourse are very prevalent from inside the societies having lower virility cost. Lithuania has received a virility decline given that 1991, that have modest movement lower than inhabitants substitute for profile, additionally the country shines regarding the Eu perspective featuring its reduced great attitude from childlessness. For the 2006 only 1.9% out of Lithuanians expressed positive attitudes for the childlessness, while 84.6% appreciated they negatively (Stakuniene and you can Maslauskaite 2008). Together with other East European countries (Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, Slovakia, and you will Ukraine), Lithuanians share more traditional loved ones norms much less recognition regarding voluntary childlessness. In contrast, Eu countries (Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, Cyprus, Germany, Denmark, Ireland, the netherlands, Norway, A holiday in greece and you can Sweden), pioneers on the Second Demographic Transition, worth freedom, emancipation and adaptation, and they philosophy is linked to a higher acceptance out of volunteer childlessness (Stakuniene and you can Maslauskaite 2008; Merz and you may Liefbroer 2012). Faster acceptance various existence programmes inside the Lithuania produces a social framework where, despite much more individualistic attitudes, the narratives of stigmatization and personal different nevertheless are thought of. An excellent qualitative relative examination of enjoy off childlessness during the Lithuania and you will Poland shows how the dominating social commentary causes ideas regarding exemption of certain personal sectors (work and religious groups, friends) and you may causes a feeling of otherness (Gedvilaite-Kordusiene et al. 2020).

I use the maxims of ‘childlessness’ and you may ‘childfreeness’ since kaikki Australialainen morsiamet the synonyms from the text, one another talking about its lack of biological students. Even if the label childfree does not contain the meaning regarding run out of, within the word childless (Gibb 2019), particular people acknowledge one these two conditions is knew given that bad from the social commentary: ‘childless’ represents individuals who are struggling to reproduce and you can, which, are considered ‘incomplete’, ‘not whole’, which have ‘one thing missing’; whereas ‘childfree’ women sometimes is actually framed as the ‘selfish’ and ‘crazy’ for buying not to have pupils (Venkatesan and you can Murali 2019, 14–15). In spite of the sexist and you will misogynous overtones ones expressions, i have made a decision to use them to describe the women inside the studies; those who revealed their experiences out of childlessness regarding ‘things missing’ or reported that it could be nice having youngsters are known while the childless from the text message. ‘Childfree’ is employed to determine women that expressed a dynamic decision not to have youngsters today of the interviews and you can later on. I utilize the name ‘childfree attitudes’ to explain ladies positions into the childbearing when female asked the importance of students inside their lives. Some feamales in all of our decide to try haven’t produced active options to stand childfree throughout their reproductive life; but not, their narratives expressed childfree positions, and this i thought as ‘childfree attitudes’.

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